Contribute To Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management

The Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management Journal is published bi-annually by Alpha Wildlife Publications. It is an open-access, online journal that is universally and freely accessible via the Internet in an easily readable and printable PDF format.

Editor-in-Chief:         Dr. Gilbert Proulx
Assistant Editor:        Pauline Feldstein


The Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management Journal publishes scientific observations by amateur and professional naturalists, field biologists, wildlife managers, educators, conservationists and students. All research papers must be based on original datasets. Models and management solutions must have been field tested. Reviews are welcomed and can address any topic of wildlife biology and management.

Submission of Manuscripts

Review and Acceptance

Submit all manuscripts by e-mail to the Editor.

Manuscripts are double-blind peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication.

Manuscripts should be written in English, in a clear, concise, direct style. We encourage authors to have their paper reviewed by an English scholar before submission. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Covering letter
Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. This must be stated in the covering letter.

The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.

Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest.
If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter.  If “in press” publications are being used as reference material, a letter from the publication editor/publisher stating that the publication has been accepted and is in press must be attached to the covering letter.   Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors, if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered. Once submitted to the Journal, the authors will not withdraw their manuscript at any stage prior to publication.

Please submit the names of at least 3 potential referees and their email addresses. If accepted, the submitted paper may be published as an original research paper, a management paper, a review, a natural history observation, or a point to ponder (see descriptions below)  The authors must indicate for which category they are submitting their paper.  It is possible, however, that the Editor decides that the paper fits better in a category other than the one suggested by the authors.

Ethical Considerations

If animal handling has occurred, authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the research institution or is conform with guidelines previously published in scientific journals or recognized organizations.

In taxonomic papers, type specimens and type depositories must be clearly designated and indicated. Authors are recommended to deposit the name-bearing type material in internationally recognized institutions.

When the research is carried out in areas for which research permits are required (e.g. nature reserves), or when it deals with organisms for which collection or import/export permits are required (e.g. protected species), the authors must clearly detail obtaining these permits in the Acknowledgments section.


Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution non-commercial License (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited. Authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article.  No permission is required from the authors or the publishers. This approach is being usedto facilitate the dissemination and free use of original works of all types. The authors are responsible for ensuring that their work is not being plagiarized by or accredited by other individuals.

Style of the Manuscript

All submitted articles must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

Use Microsoft Word (any version, but preferably recent) only. All manuscripts should be double-spaced and include line numbers, preferably within the page. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page. The top, bottom and side margins should be at least 30 mm.

Spelling: The Journal uses U.S. spelling, e.g., behavior not behaviour.

Units: All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. (

Abbreviations: Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
Zoological nomenclature: All papers must conform to the latest edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Upon its first use in the title, abstract and text, the common name of a species should be capitalized and followed by the scientific name (genus, species) in parentheses. For example: Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus).  Do not capitalize group names, e.g., weasels, voles, etc.

Manuscript Categories

The authors must indicate in which category they want to see their article published:

  • Research – this paper contains original research results on diverse biological disciplines including wildlife distribution, evolution, populations, habitats, predator-prey relations, food preferences, morphophysiology, disease physiology, parasites, behavior, genetics, morphology and taxonomy.
  • Management – this paper reports manipulative or custodian actions including hunting and trapping, game keeping, conservation efforts, pest control, habitat alteration or restoration, implementation of new techniques, etc.
  • Review – this paper is an account and assessment of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers, a synthesis of historical events associated with a management program, an evaluation of government policies and actions on specific wildlife management techniques, or an assessment of trends in research and management practices.
  • Natural history observation – this paper reports on the geographic extension of a species, an unknown physical or physiologicalcharacteristic, a behavioral observation, an unusual or unknown intra- or inter- specific encounter, etc. This category reports observations on the biology of species that may not be amenable to statistical testing but would nevertheless contribute to the understanding of wildlife biology.
  • Points to ponder – this paper is a comment/note about bio-socio-political issues that impact on wildlife research and management in Canada.

The Manuscript

Manuscripts may be of any length, and should be presented in the following order:

  • First title page should contain:

(i)                 The title of the paper. The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters) should also be provided.

(ii)               The full names of the authors.

(iii)             The addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with the full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

  • Second title page with the title of the manuscript but without any reference to authors and addresses
  • Manuscript itself :

(i)                 Abstract and key words. All articles must have a brief abstract that states in 250 words or fewer the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.
Three to five key words should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

(ii)               Text. Articles may have headings that best communicate the content.  The following subheadings are commonly used to divide the sections of the manuscript: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Management Considerations (if applicable).

Give geographical locations as latitude/longitude in degrees/minutes, e.g., 54o07N, 108 o25W. Use a space between number and unit, e.g., 15 m (but: 15%).  Use only the 24-hr clock, e.g., 07h55, for times. Spell out numbers from 1 to 6. Statistical testing is recommended in all research papers, but may not be required for naturalist observations.

(iii)             Acknowledgements. The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers may be included.

(iv)             Literature Cited (see below for style).  Within the text, citation to unpublished information must provide the person’s full name, year, institutional affiliation (if any), and type of information, e.g., unpublished data, personal communication.

(v)               Figure legends.  Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

(vi)             Tables (each table complete with title and footnotes).  Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols (†, ‡, §, ¶) or letters (a, b, c), should be used; the symbols *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures, such as SD or SEM, should be identified in the headings.

(vii)           Figures.  All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures – they should be submitted in JPEG or TIFF format. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be no larger than a standard page, and should be high resolution (at least 300 d.p.i.).  Do not embed figures in the Word document – they must be supplied in separate files. Line figures should be supplied as sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package. Lettering must be included and should be in Times New Roman 9 point.

Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Literature Cited

Literature Cited may include unpublished information (grey literature) and web documents.  Cite literature in the text as follows: (Proulx 2006, 2008; Zielinski et al. 2004a, 2004b), items in date sequence.  Give titles of periodicals in full.  Give the country as well as town of publication. Place translated titles (in English) in square brackets.  Follow the style (pay attention to indents, comas and periods):

Articles in journals:

Proulx, G.  2006.  Using forest inventory data to predict winter habitat use by fisher Martes pennanti in British Columbia, Canada. Acta Theriologica 51: 275-282.

Proulx, G.  2009.  Conserving American Marten Martes americana winter habitat in sub-boreal spruce forests affected by Mountain Pine Beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae  infestations and logging in British Columbia, Canada. Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 51-57.

Zielinski, W. J., R. L. Truex, G. A. Schmidt, F. V. Schlexer, K. N. Schmidt, and R. H. Barrett. 2004a. Home range characteristics of fishers in California. Journal of Mammalogy 85: 649–657.

Zielinski, W. J., R. L. Truex, G. A. Schmidt, F. V. Schlexer, K. N. Schmidt, and R. H. Barrett. 2004b. Resting habitat selection by fishers in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 68: 475–492.

Books, Reports, and Thesis:

Collins, D. P.  2003.  Badger ecology on the Chapparal Wildlife Management Area, Texas. Sc. Thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacodoches, Texas, USA.

Singleton, G. R., S. R. Belman, P. R. Brown, and B. Hardy, editors.  2010.  Rodent outbreaks: Ecology and impacts.  International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, Phillipines.

Ternovsky, D. V.  1977.  [Biology of the Mustelidae].  Nauka, Novosibirsk, USSR. (In Russian). Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis. Fourth edition. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

Chapters in books and proceedings

Proulx, G.  2011.  Field evidence of non-target and secondary poisoning by strychnine and chlorophacinone used to control Richardson’s ground squirrels in southwest Saskatchewan. Pages 128-134 in D. Danyluk, editor. Patterns of Change. Proceedings of the 9th Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Conference, February 2010. Critical Wildlife Habitat Program, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Strickland, M.A., C.W. Douglas, M. Novak, and M.P. Hunziger. 1982. Fisher. Pages 586–598 in J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer, editors. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, economics.  Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Unpublished and Web Documents

Provincial Council of ADD Boards & Sustainable Production Branch.  2001.  2001 Saskatchewan “gopher” survey.  Report of survey results to Provincial Council of ADD Boards, Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Trost, R. E., and T. A. Sanders.  2008.  Pacific Flyway Data Book – waterfowl harvest and status, hunter participation and success in the Pacific Flyway and United States.  U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon, USA. Accessed 26 September 2009.


A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author.

Submission Checklist

  • A cover letter explaining why you consider the manuscript suitable for publication in Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management.
  • A title page including all authors and their affiliations and email addresses.
  • Check the title and keywords of your study – Do they attract researchers in your field and more broadly?
  • An abstract of 250 words or less that effectively summarizes your study and engages other researchers.
  • Check that the manuscript follows the Author Guidelines for Canadian Wildlife Biology & Management and that the sections are in the correct order.
  • Check that you have indicated the ethics approval system under which your study was conducted in the manuscript.
  • Cross-check all references and check their formatting in the text and references section.
  • Ensure your manuscript is in Microsoft Word format.
  • All tables and figures are presented at the end of the text.
  • Check that only SI values have been used throughout the manuscript.
  • We encourage authors to have their paper reviewed by an English scholar before submission.

Publication Charges

Authors will be charged $ 125 for each 81/2 x 10” page or part thereof.  Publication charges must be paid in full before the article is published online.

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